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Benefits Backed by Science

At 2before, our products are backed by real research to help you achieve real results. Based on the latest research,
antioxidants by themselves aren’t as beneficial as we thought. Through clinical trials, we’ve uncovered the right dosage of
New Zealand blackcurrants to deliver the right levels of prooxidant, and antioxidant, anthocyanins to help you improve
athletic performance and enhance recovery

IMPROVES ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

A number of clinical studies have demonstrated New Zealand blackcurrant can improve athletic performance. For example, taking blackcurrant before exercise resulted in faster cycling times (Murphy et al. 2017), race times (Cook et al. 2015), and increased endurance during repetitive sprints (Willems et al. 2016) and rock climbing (Potter et al. 2018). Many different mechanisms have been investigated including cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, oxidative stress management, and metabolic improvements.

Citations

Braakhuis AJ, Hopkins WG, Lowe TE. Effects of dietary antioxidants on training and performance in female runners. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(2):160-8.

www.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.785597

Willems MET, Myers SD, Blacker SD, Cook MD. CurraNZ blackcurrant improves cycling performance and recovery in trained endurance athletes. J Int Soc sports Nutr. 2014.11.10.1186/1550-2783-11-S1-P14.

www.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-S1-P14

Cook MD, Myers SD, Blacker SD, Willems ME. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Nov;115(11):2357-65.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8

Perkins IC, Vine SA, Blacker SD, Willems MET. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves high-intensity intermittent running. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2015 Oct;25(5):487-93.

www.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0020

Willems MET, Myers SD, Gault ML, Cook MD. Beneficial physiological effects with blackcurrant intake in endurance athletes. Int J Sports Nutr Ex Metabol. 2015;25:367-374.

www.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0233

Willems MET, Cousins L, Williams D, Blacker SD. Beneficial effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant extract on maximal sprint speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. Sports. 2016;4:42.

www.doi.org/10.3390/sports4030042

Godwin C, Cook MD, Willems MET. Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on performance during the running based anaerobic sprint test in trained youth and recreationally active male football players. Sports (Basel). 2017;5(3):69.

www.doi.org/10.3390/sports5030069

Murphy CA, Cook MD, Willems MET. Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on repeated cycling time trial performance. Sports 2017;5:25.

www.doi.org/10.3390/sports5020025

Willems MET, Sahin MA, Berendsen T, Cook MD. Effect of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on cycling performance and substrate oxidation in normobaric hypoxia in trained cyclists. Sports (Basel). 2019 Mar 16;7(3). pii: E67.

www.doi.org/10.3390/sports7030067

Perkins IC, Blacker SD, Willems MED. Intra-individual responses to New Zealand blackcurrant extract during high-intensity, intermittent running: A repeat response study. Conference Poster. Int J Sports Nutr Ex Metabol. 2019;29(Suppl1):S1-S16. doi:

www.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0057.

Potter JA, Hodgson CI, Broadhurst M, Howell L, Gilbert J, Willems MET, Perkins IC. Effects of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on sport climbing performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2020 Jan;120(1):67-75.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04226-2

COGNITIVE BENEFITS

A few clinical studies have shown that blackcurrant extract can improve human cognitive function and the inhibition of monoamine oxidase-B and increased monoamine neurotransmitters appears to play a role. Another study demonstrates that blackcurrant may improve self-motivation to adhere to an exercise regime (Lomiwes et al. 2019).

Citations

Watson AW, Haskell-Ramsay CF, O’Kennedy D, Cooney JM, Trower T, Scheepens A. Acute supplementation with blackcurrant extracts modulates cognitive functioning and inhibits monoamine oxidase-B in healthy young adults. J Func Food 2015 Aug:17:524-539

www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.06.005

Watson AW, Scheepens A, Kennedy DO, Cooney JM, Trower TM, Haskell-Ramsay CF. The pharmacodynamic profile of "Blackadder" blackcurrant juice effects upon the monoamine axis in humans: A randomised controlled trial. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Oct 5:1-10.

www.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2018.1525950

Lomiwes D, Ha B, Ngametua N, Burr NS, Cooney JM, Trower TM, Sawyer G, Hedderley D, Hurst RD, Hurst SM. Timed consumption of a New Zealand blackcurrant juice support positive affective responses during a self-motivated moderate walking exercise in healthy sedentary adults. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2019 Dec;16(1):1-4.

www.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0300-0

IMPROVES BLOOD FLOW

Clinical evidence shows that blackcurrant extract can improve blood flow. It can lower systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure; increase cardiac output and stroke volume; decrease total peripheral resistance; increase the diameter of the femoral artery (Cook et al. 2017a); maintain forearm blood flow (Barnes et al. 2018; Matsumoto et al. 2005); and increase circulation in the cold (Takenami et al. 2004). It also has benefits for heart rate (Potter et al. 2018).

Citations

Takenami,E. Kurashige,K.I. Matsumoto, H. Honma,T. Osada, T. Okubo, M. Hamaoka,T. Improvement of cold water immersion induced circulation impairment by blackcurrant extract intake-the investigation on cold constitutional women. J Jap Soc Ther. 2004; 23:194–201.

Matsumoto H, Takenami E, Iwasaki-Kurashige K, Osada T, Katsumura T, Hamaoka T. Effects of blackcurrant anthocyanin intake on peripheral muscle circulation during typing work in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 May;94(1-2):36-45.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1279-y

Willems MET, Myers SD, Cook MD, Gault ML. Effect of New Zealand Sujon blackcurrant on resting cardiovascular function in triathletes. J Int Soc sports Nutr. 2014; 11(Suppl 1): P3.

www.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-S1-P3

Cook MD, Myers SD, Blacker SD, Willems ME. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Nov;115(11):2357-65.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8

Willems MET, Myers SD, Gault ML, Cook MD. Beneficial physiological effects with blackcurrant intake in endurance athletes. Int J Sports Nutr Ex Metabol. 2015;25:367-374.

www.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0233

Cook MD, Myers SD, Gault ML, Willems MET. Blackcurrant alters physiological responses and femoral artery diameter during sustained isometric contraction. Nutrients 2017;9:556.

www.doi.org/10.3390/nu9060556

Barnes M, Perry B, Hurst R, Lomiwes D. Effects of blackcurrant extract on peripheral blood flow and muscular endurance. Med Sci Sports Ex 2018 May:50(5S):720

www.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000538374.17437.0b

Potter JA, Hodgson CI, Broadhurst M, Howell L, Gilbert J, Willems MET, Perkins IC. Effects of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on sport climbing performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2020 Jan;120(1):67-75.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04226-2

SUPPORTS IMMUNITY

New Zealand blackcurrants have been shown to activate the body’s immune defenses. In one study, New Zealand blackcurrant increased circulating neutrophils, the expression of neutrophil surface receptors, and helped maintain the ability of the neutrophils to phagocytose infectious bacteria (Hurst et al. 2019). In another study, 5-weeks supplementation with blackcurrant extract increased levels of IL-10, which was correlated with enhanced antioxidant status (Hurst et al. 2020).

Citations

Lyall KA, Hurst SM, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst RD, Stevenson LM. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Jul;297(1):R70-81.

www.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.90740.2008

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Roberts JM, Perthaner A, Wells RW, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ, Burr NS, Hurst SM. Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants prior to exercise may assist recovery from oxidative stress and maintains circulating neutrophil function: A pilot study. Front Nutr. 2019 May 29;6:73.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00073

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Wells RW, Sawyer GM, Lomiwes D, Ngametua N and Hurst SM. Daily Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants for 5 weeks supports exercise recovery through the management of oxidative stress and inflammation: A randomized placebo controlled pilot study. Front. Nutr. 2020;7:16.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00016

IMPROVES RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE

The specific health effect proposed for New Zealand blackcurrant is the management of moderate exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation which leads to improved exercise recovery. A number of clinical trials have also demonstrated blackcurrant extract can reduce measures of muscle damage and fatigue like creatine kinase and lactate (Hutchison et al. 2016; Willems et al. 2015; Lyall et al. 2009).

Citations

Lyall KA, Hurst SM, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst RD, Stevenson LM. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Jul;297(1):R70-81.

www.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.90740.2008

Dannapfel S, Lowe T, Cummins R. The acute effect of prolonged intense cycling and blackcurrant extract on protein carbonyls in well-trained male cyclists. J Sci Med Sport 12S (2009) S1–S83.

www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.12.166

Hutchison AT, Flieller EB, Dillon KJ, Leverett BD. Black currant nectar reduces muscle damage and inflammation following a bout of high-intensity eccentric contractions. J Dietary Suppl. 13(1):1–15, 2016.

www.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2014.952864

Watson AW, Scheepens A, Kennedy DO, Cooney JM, Trower TM, Haskell-Ramsay CF. The pharmacodynamic profile of "Blackadder" blackcurrant juice effects upon the monoamine axis in humans: A randomised controlled trial. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Oct 5:1-10.

www.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2018.1525950

Barnes M, Perry B, Hurst R, Lomiwes D. Effects of Blackcurrant extract on peripheral blood flow and muscular endurance. Med Sci Sports Ex 2018 May:50(5S):720

www.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000538374.17437.0b

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Roberts JM, Perthaner A, Wells RW, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ, Burr NS, Hurst SM. Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants prior to exercise may assist recovery from oxidative stress and maintains circulating neutrophil function: A pilot study. Front Nutr. 2019 May 29;6:73.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00073

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Wells RW, Sawyer GM, Lomiwes D, Ngametua N and Hurst SM. Daily Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants for 5 weeks supports exercise recovery through the management of oxidative stress and inflammation: A randomized placebo controlled pilot study. Front. Nutr. 2020;7:16.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00016

MANAGES INFLAMMATION FOR TISSUE REPAIR

A number of studies show blackcurrant extract speeds the body’s own inflammatory defences toward tissue repair. For example, it appropriately modulates the production of pro and anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory cytokines like TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10.

Citations

Lyall KA, Hurst SM, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst RD, Stevenson LM. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Jul;297(1):R70-81.

www.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.90740.2008

Hutchison AT, Flieller EB, Dillon KJ, Leverett BD. Black currant nectar reduces muscle damage and inflammation following a bout of high-intensity eccentric contractions. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 13(1):1–15, 2016.

www.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2014.952864

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Roberts JM, Perthaner A, Wells RW, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ, Burr NS, Hurst SM. Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants prior to exercise may assist recovery from oxidative stress and maintains circulating neutrophil function: A pilot study. Front Nutr. 2019 May 29;6:73.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00073

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Wells RW, Sawyer GM, Lomiwes D, Ngametua N and Hurst SM Daily consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants for 5 weeks supports exercise recovery through the management of oxidative stress and inflammation: A randomized placebo controlled pilot study. Front. Nutr. 2020;7:16.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00016

IMPROVES FAT OXIDATION

Clinical evidence suggests blackcurrant extract can improve energy usage, especially during exercise. This includes increased fatty acid oxidation, decreased carbohydrate oxidation (Cook et al. 2017b; Strauss et al. 2018), and lower resting energy expenditure (Strauss et al. 2018).

Citations

Cook MD, Myers SD, Blacker SD, Willems ME. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Nov;115(11):2357-65.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8

Cook MD, Myers SD, Gault ML, Edwards VC, Willems MET. Dose effects of New Zealand blackcurrant on substrate oxidation and physiological responses during prolonged cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:1207–1216.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3607-z

Strauss JA, Willems MET, Shepherd SO. New Zealand blackcurrant extract enhances fat oxidation during prolonged cycling in endurance-trained females. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018 Jun;118(6):1265-1272.

www.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3858-3

SUPPORT TRAINING ADAPTATION

New Zealand blackcurrants don’t act as antioxidants in human plasma (Hurst et al. 2019). The management of exercise oxidative stress and inflammation is unlikely to be attributable to the antioxidant properties of the extract and more likely due to blackcurrant activating adaptive defensive pathways in cells and tissues. This potentially occurs through blackcurrant anthocyanins working with exercise to modulate Nrf2-antioxidant response element signalling pathways. Additionally daily consumption of New Zealand blackcurrants over 5 weeks either maintained or enhanced exercise recovery effectiveness, improving anti-inflammatory and immunity measures (Hurst et al. 2020).

Citations

Lyall KA, Hurst SM, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst RD, Stevenson LM. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Jul;297(1):R70-81.

www.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.90740.2008

Dannapfel S, Lowe T, Cummins R. The acute effect of prolonged intense cycling and blackcurrant extract on protein carbonyls in well-trained male cyclists. J Sci Med Sport 12S (2009) S1–S83.

www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.12.166

Braakhuis AJ, Hopkins WG, Lowe TE. Effects of dietary antioxidants on training and performance in female runners. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(2):160-8.

www.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.785597

Hutchison AT, Flieller EB, Dillon KJ, Leverett BD. Black currant nectar reduces muscle damage and inflammation following a bout of high-intensity eccentric contractions. J Dietary Suppl. 13(1):1–15, 2016.

www.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2014.952864

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Roberts JM, Perthaner A, Wells RW, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ, Burr NS, Hurst SM. Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants prior to exercise may assist recovery from oxidative stress and maintains circulating neutrophil function: A pilot study. Front Nutr. 2019 May 29;6:73.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00073

Hurst RD, Lyall KA, Wells RW, Sawyer GM, Lomiwes D, Ngametua N and Hurst SM Daily Consumption of an anthocyanin-rich extract made from New Zealand blackcurrants for 5 weeks supports exercise recovery through the management of oxidative stress and inflammation: A randomized placebo controlled pilot study. Front. Nutr. 2020;7:16.

www.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00016